In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square.
The first signs of modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe.
championed sexual liberation, were often vegetarian and eco-friendly, promoted the use of psychedelic drugs which they believed expanded one's consciousness, and created intentional communities or communes.
They used alternative arts, street theatre, folk music, and psychedelic rock as a part of their lifestyle and as a way of expressing their feelings, their protests and their vision of the world and life.
In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the terms hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.
Andrew Loog Oldham refers to "all the Chicago hippies," seemingly in reference to black blues/R&B musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones, Now!