Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.
On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation when the Soviet Union disintegrated.
During the late 19th century the Jadidists established themselves as an Islamic social movement throughout the region.
Although the Jadidists were pro-modernization and not necessarily anti-Russian, the Russians viewed the movement as a threat.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Transoxania (which corresponds approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and southwest Kazakhstan) and ruled between 999–1211.
It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east.
Traditional homelands of the Tajik people includes present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997.
Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow.