These ovens or hearths took the form of clay-covered hollows in the floor which were heated with burning wood.When the heat was sufficient the embers were raked out and the pieces of dough placed in the hollows and covered over.The lower section formed the fire-box in which were burned pieces of dried wood, foten taken from the Nile, or even dried animal dung.The upper part, accessible from the top, was the baking chamber.The rise would be more spectacular than from a few errant spores and the effect would be easy to explain and equally easy to reproduce." ---Food in History, Tannahill (p.51-52) "The brewing of beer may well have occurred soon after the production of cereal crops, and no doubt for a long time beer was home-produced and in the hands of housewives responsible for preparing the gruel or bread..first production of beer may be reasonably considered as an accidental discovery resulting for the malting of grain for other purposes." ---Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples, Don Brothwell and Patricia Brothwell, expanded edition [Johns Hopkins: Maryland] 1998 (p.
bread yeast wheat flour rye flour maslin oatmeal semolina spelt ancient ovens Byzantine bread Chinese bread Colonial ovens Colonial bakeries Baking in America/Panschar French Revolution London prices Restaurant bread service anadama bread artisan breads bagels baguette banana nut bread bannock biscuits bishop's bread Boston brown bread brioche bread pudding bruschetta campaillou challah cheese straws ciabatta cinnamon rolls cinnamon toast cloverleaf rolls coffee cake colomba corn bread crackers cranberry bread crepes croissants croutons crumpets diet bread doughnuts Easter breads English muffins flatbreads flower pot bread focaccia National Loaf (UK) pain de campagne pain de mie pancakes panettone panforte panko paratha parbaked bread Parker House rolls Parthian bread pita popovers potato bread pretzel bread pretzels Pullman loaves pumpernickel pumpkin bread roti rye & Indian bread rye bread sandwich bread Sally Lunn salt rising bread scones Ship's biscuit sourdough stuffing & dressing tea cakes thirded bread toast tortillas waffles white bread whole wheat bread zucchini bread The history of bread and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time according to ingredient availability, advances in technology, economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval guilds), and evolving taste. Variations in grain, thickness, shape, and texture varied from culture to culture.In episode 2 of The Science Inside, we looked at the ARV shortages that continually plague South Africa’s public health system, some of the myths surrounding HIV treatment and local research into new kinds of therapies. The Science Inside is produced by The Wits Radio Academy with funding from The Department of Science & Technology.The Science Inside is produced by The Wits Radio Academy with funding from The Department of Science & Technology. Each week the show goes inside the science of a major news item, natural disaster or cultural event, such as the salvage of the Costa Concordia, fracking, a train crash or the shortage of ARVs.In Jerusalem there was a bakers' quarter where bread was baked in tiers of stone-built ovens, or furnaces as they were called in the Bible.In Ancient Rome bread ovens in the public bakeries were originally hewn from solid rock.