The sum of protons plus neutrons is the mass number.
We designate a specific group of atoms by using the term "nuclide." A nuclide refers to a group of atoms with specified atomic number and mass number.
The decrease in the amount of potassium required to form the original mineral has consistently confirmed the age as determined by the amount of argon formed.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called its atomic number.Radioactive elements "decay" (that is, change into other elements) by "half lives." If a half life is equal to one year, then one half of the radioactive element will have decayed in the first year after the mineral was formed; one half of the remainder will decay in the next year (leaving one-fourth remaining), and so forth.The formula for the fraction remaining is one-half raised to the power given by the number of years divided by the half-life (in other words raised to a power equal to the number of half-lives).(Creationists claim that argon escape renders age determinations invalid.However, any escaping argon gas would lead to a determined age younger, not older, than actual.