The lack of major, clearly defined changes within narrow time spans is a hallmark of Great Basin, western Oregon, and Plateau cultures and represents only one of a few cases where both culture and environment have remained stable over a period of several thousand years.
Such stability in culture has and will continue to evoke considerable scientific interest. Hanes IV Archaeology of Oregon Acknowledgements I thank Y. (Jack) Witherspoon for his sense of mission and for generating the ongoing support of the Bureau of Land Management Cultural Resources Program that led originally to the writing of Archaeology of Oregon.
., 178 Future Research 180 — ix — Archaeology of Oregon Chapter 5 - Willamette Valley 183 Ethnographic Life Way 185 Landscape and Natural Resources 188 Time and Environmental Change 190 Cultural Chronology and Time Markers 191 Mohawk River, Templeton, Cottage Grove 1 92 Hannavan Creek Site 193 Perkins Park Site 195 Upper Long Tom River Sites 196 Kirk Park 196 Inman Creek 197 Flanagan Site 198 Benjamin Sites 199 Hurd Site 200 Hager's Grove 203 Fuller and Fanning Mounds 206 Cascadia Cave 210 Baby Rock Shelter 212 Rigdon's Horse Pasture Cave 212 Western Cascades Uplands 213 Artistic and Symbolic Forms 218 Future Research 219 Chapter 6 - Southwestern Mountains 221 Ethnographic Life Way 223 .
Landscape and Natural Resources 225 Time and Environmental Change 226 Cultural Chronology and Time Markers 227 Applegate River Sites 228 Marial Site 229 Tlegetlinten and Blossom Bar 234 Gold Hill 236 Saltsgaver Site 242 Ritsch and Marthaller 242 Far Hills Ranch 243 Elk Creek Sites 243 Hinterland Sites 250 Border Village 251 Archaeology of Oregon North Umpqua Narrows 254 Limpy Rock Shelter 256 South Umpqua River Sites 257 Standley Site 261 Artistic and Symbolic Forms 263 Future Research 265 Chapter 7 - Oregon Cultures in Perspective 267 The Peopling of the North and the Peopling of America 267 Postglacial Readaptation: Archaic Hunter-Fisher-Gather- ers 270 Connections and Convergences 273 Future Research 275 References Cited 277 XI Archaeology of Oregon List of Figures 1.1 Hypothetical stratified archaeological site with projectile points and 14 C dated firehearths 3 1.2 Culture areas of western North America 8 1.3 Geographical distribution of Oregon native groups in 1850 11 1.4 Topographic map of Oregon 12 2.1 Map showing site locations in the Northern Great Basin region of Oregon 14 2.2 Harney Valley Paiute seasonal round 16 2.3 Clovis fluted points from the Dietz Site, central Oregon 21 2.4 Projectile points from the Early period, Northern Great Basin, Oregon 22 2.5 Projectile points from the Middle period, Northern Great Basin, Oregon 24 2.6 Projectile points from the Late period, Northern Great Basin, Oregon 25 2.7 Paleo-Indian stone tools from the Dietz Site 27 2.8 Early assemblage from above lake gravels at Fort Rock Cave 28 2.9 Schematic model of prehistoric subsistence and settlement in the Warner Valley 41 2.10 Chronological distribution of projectile point types from far western sites 43 2.11 Generalized stratigraphic cross-section of the Skull Creek Dunes Site 45 2.12 Woven sandals 45 2.13 Fragment of tule matting bound together with fiber cordage, from Roaring Springs Cave 46 2.14 Large tule fiber bag from Chewaucan Cave 47 2.15 Large twined basketry tray from Chewaucan Cave.
Certainly one of the most valuable is by native Americans themselves.
Descriptions of Oregon's traditional cultures provided by direct descendants are now gaining increased availability to the public in today's literature, such as The First Oregonians recently published by the Oregon Council for the Humanities.
As is apparent, this book is predominantly derived from scientific investigations of the archaeological record conducted over the past 60 years.
119 Hall Creek 120 Pilcher Creek 121 Stockhof f and Marshmeadow 121 — viii — Archaeology of Oregon Lower Deschutes River 122 Mack Canyon 122 Sherar's Bridge 123 Round Butte 124 Lava Island Rockshelter 124 Lava Butte 125 Wickiup Dam and Odell Lake 125 Kawumkan Springs 125 Bezuksewas Village and Williamson River Bridge 127 Lost River and the Peninsula Site 128 Nightfire Island 129 Artistic and Symbolic Forms 132 Future Research 134 Chapter 4 - Pacific Coast and Lower Columbia River ...137 Ethnographic Life Way 139 Natural Landscape 142 Time and Environmental Change 143 Cultural Chronology and Time Markers 144 Tahkenitch Landing 145 Umpqua-Eden Site 149 Lone Ranch Creek 153 Pistol River 155 Yaquina Head 156 Whale Cove 162 Seal Rock 163 Palmrose, Avenue Q, and Par-Tee 164 Ti Uamook Site 167 Fishing Rocks 169 Lower Columbia River 170 Eddy Point and Ivy Station 170 Merrybell Site 171 Cholick Site 172 Meier Site 173 Resources of the Sauvie Island Vicinity 174 House Types of the Lower Columbia 177 Artistic and Symbolic Forms ..BLM/OR/WA/ST-93/16 8100 Cover Photo: Archaeological work at the Dietz Site, Lake County, Oregon (photo courtesy of John L. ■ bio ASH ij Bg Archaeology of Oregon by: C Melvin Aikens «» ^ BLM LIBRARY SC-653, BLDG. This volume presents a synthesis of the information available concerning the prehistory of Oregon. Aikens, through analysis of the archaeological and anthropological data, has added the insights and conclusions that have come to him through twenty years of concentrated study of the subject area.50 R DENVER FEDERAL CENTER n A Rfl M 9 5047 1993 DENvfe'do 130225-0047 U. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management Oregon State Office 1300 N. 44th Avenu Portland, Oregon 97213 Archaeology of Oregon Forward The Bureau of Land Management State Office is proud to present Archaeology of Oregon by Dr. The Bureau of Land Management publishes this study as a part of its "Adventures in the Past" public outreach effort and in recognition of its responsibility to make information gained through its Cultural Resources Management Program available to scholars and to the general public.A major goal in archaeology is to document the differing adaptations that groups have made to the various environments over a lengthy time period.To this goal, each chapter is organized utilizing the same themes.