This is the Teplostanskaya Upland, which rises more than 400 feet (120 metres) above the Moscow River and which includes the highest elevation within Moscow’s limits, 830 feet (250 metres) above sea level.
One of the sweeping bends of the river has cut into the edge of the Teplostanskaya Upland a steep cliff, the Vorobyëvy Hills (also known as the Sparrow Hills or the Lenin Hills), from the top of which there are panoramic views of the city.
The Yauza and the Moscow are controlled by stone embankments for most of their winding courses through the city.
The Moscow River has been diverted in places, with cuts made through the necks of its loops, and it has also been both widened and deepened; in certain places it is 800 feet (245 metres) wide.
Winters are long, yet they are significantly milder than in similar climatic regions of North America.
Today Moscow is not only the political centre of Russia but also the country’s most populous city and its industrial, cultural, scientific, and educational capital. Moscow has not stopped being refurbished and modernized and continues to experience rapid social change.Moscow is situated in the broad, extremely shallow valley of the Moscow River and its tributaries.The advances and retreats of glaciers during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago) deposited a thick mantle of boulder clays and morainic sands and gravels into which the sinuous Moscow River cut its wide valley in successive stages, marked by four corresponding levels.Similarly, eastward and southeastward the surface gradually merges into the vast, almost completely flat, and very swampy clay plain of the Meshchera Lowland, which extends far beyond the city limits. The legend that Moscow was built on seven hills, as Rome was, is an exaggeration, though there are a few small hills in and around the city centre.Only in the southwest of the city is there an upland area—on Cretaceous rocks, covered by glacial morainic material.